Basic Income Proposals in Finland, Germany and Spain


In recent decades, the idea of a universal basic income (BI) has spread across Europe and worldwide. The first wave of interest emerged in the 1970s to 1990s in the context of the crisis in Keynesian policy and suddenly increasing unemployment. It brought up ideas of “dual economy”, “job-sharing” and a “society of free activities” where the BI was often included.

Since the turn of the 21st century, the BI in its various forms has gained increasing interest among social philosophers, economists, social policy experts and policymakers. A wide range of proposals of universal unconditional basic income, as well as its conditional or slightly targeted cognates, have appeared in all parts of the world. (to be continued in the PDF below)

Read the paper: Basic Income Proposals in Finland, Paper_no2_perkioe_EN
And the appendix: Basic_Income_in_Europe.Tabellen.corr_mitangenommenenAenderungen
Basic Income Proposals in Finland, Germany and Spain By Johanna Perkiö